References (Butterflies)

The following articles and books will provide further information on butterflies:

Arnold, R. A. 1983.  Conservation and management of the endangered Smith's Blue butterfly, Euphilotes enoptes smithi (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).  Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 22:135-153.

Ballmer, G. R. and G. F. Pratt. 1988.  A survey of the last instar larvae of the Lycaenidae of California. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 27:1-81.

Ferris, C. D. and F. M. Brown. (eds.) 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. Univ. of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, USA, 442 pp.

Opler, P. A., H. Pavulaan, and R. E. Stanford. 1995.  Butterflies of North America.  Jamestown, North Dakota, USA: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page. (Version 05Nov98).

Opler, P. A. and A. B.Wright. 1999. A Field Guide to the Western Butterflies.   Second Edition.  Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, New York, USA, 540 pp.

Pyle, R. M. 1981.  National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies.  Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, New York, USA, 924 pp.

Scott, J. A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America.  Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, USA, 583 pp.

Stanford, R. E. and P. A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western U.S.A. Butterflies (Including Adjacent Parts of Canada and Mexico).  Published by authors, Denver, Colorado, USA, 275 pp.

Weller, S. J., D. P. Pashley, and J. A. Martin.  1996.   Reassessment of butterfly family relationships using independent genes and morphology.  Annals of the Entomological Society of America 89:184-192.